A national disaster warning: in up to five million years, this is the first time that the concentration of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere is approximately to reach 400 parts per million (ppm). Monday on The guardian reports, former NASA scientist James Hansen warned that levels over 350ppm would destabilize the earth’s climate, but now we have far exceeded that figure with a record-breaking weekly average of 398.5ppm recorded. While in May 2013, researchers at the Earth Systems Research Laboratory in Hawaii expect we will hit the 400ppm milestone.
Aside from many other issues like global fraud for example there are many else the government should give attention to. According to The Guardian, the US government has been monitoring atmospheric carbon dioxide levels at the Mauna Loa station located at an elevation of 11,115 feet since 1958. During the time when it was first ascertained, CO2 levels stayed at a manageable 316ppm, but in the past five decades population expansion coupled with the growth of industrialized nations hooked on fossil fuels and meat has saturated the atmosphere with heat-trapping gases.
“I wish it weren’t true but it looks like the world is going to blow through the 400ppm level without losing a beat. At this pace we’ll hit 450ppm within a few decades,” Ralph Keeling, a geologist with the Scripps Institution of Oceanography which operates the Hawaiian observatory, told The Guardian. It is as if it was a national disaster warning.
This “sobering milestone” should be a wake up call for governments to support clean energy and slash emissions, said Tim Lueker, an oceanographer and carbon cycle researcher with Scripps CO2 Group.
To die for scenic reefs in Red or the South China Sea is dying; pretty fishes and panoramic colors of soft and hard corals are now down to a complex ecology similar to tropical forest ecosystems. Compare to the microorganisms that makes the whole thing more tremendous in doing all the destruction, the predators and consumers, the producer algae and the tiny invertebrates mean nothing.
Catalina Reyes of CoECRS. (Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies) and the University of Queensland has published her work alongside 4 colleagues, on the bacteria, fungi and algae that live in this most complex marine ecosystem.
The change in this ecosystem recently is because of our overproduction. Oceans now are Cola like, the CO2 we made over the last century or two has made the sea water to feel like one. As to Catalina’s research, the acid has effects and that are clearly identifies in the micro-world of corals. She links it all up and explained, “So fish, turtles, sharks, lobsters and other reef organisms may lose their homes, threatening coral reef biodiversity and the livelihoods of tens of millions of people.” All reefs, molluscs and others are basically made up of Calcium carbonate, accepted as true to hard corals as well. Due to different reasons erosion of the reef is just a normal phenomenon but at present the erosion has become excessive that it destroys the reefs worldwide at a really disturbing rate.
The well equilibrium of attrition, storm damage, predation and growth has been distorted. Today, deterioration seems to be the pattern in lieu of slow growth. And because of the acid now less and less carbonate is available. You have probably had experimented such in your school laboratory. Micro-boring organisms also eliminate the coral skeleton as usual consequently oceans ends up with no reef!
Catalina found a 35% rate of erosion in the second example when computer simulation by the researchers compared current increases in carbon dioxide levels and their effects on reefs with those lesser increases which we hope to achieve by cutting emissions.
The dreadful effect of “doing nothing about emissions” was a doubling 100% of the erosion. Because of acidic conditions, Micro-boring organisms became much more active and seemed to have a higher temperatures and pH (acidity) that causing the destructions of more corals. A great number and the most common of all was a tiny alga that has the ability in photosynthesizing even in the low light conditions as it penetrated deep into the corals’ hearts.
Researchers say, elevated temperatures and a longer growing season mean some of Earth’s chilliest regions are looking increasingly green.
As reported and base from the new study, at present the plant life at northern latitudes often looks like the vegetation researchers would have observed up to 430 miles (700 kilometers) farther south in 1982.
“It’s like Winnipeg, Manitoba, moving to Minneapolis-Saint Paul in only 30 years,” study researcher Compton Tucker of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., said in a statement.
A team of university and NASA scientists including Tucker looked at 30 years’ worth of satellite and land surface data on vegetation growth from 45 degrees north latitude to the Arctic Ocean. The researchers suggest that, in this region, large patches of lush vegetation now stretch over an area about the size of the continental United States and resemble what was found 4 to 6 latitude degrees to the south in 1982.
“Higher northern latitudes are getting warmer, Arctic sea ice and the duration of snow cover are diminishing, the growing season is getting longer and plants are growing more,” climate scientist Ranga Myneni of Boston University said in a statement, adding that the changes are leading to great disruptions for the region’s ecosystems.
In the precedent several decades the Arctic has been warming more rapidly than the rest of any part of earth. An amplified greenhouse effect is largely to blame for the changes in plant life, says Myneni. In this succession, high concentrations of heat-trapping gasses drive up temperatures in the ocean and atmosphere. This warming trims down Arctic sea ice and snow cover, reason for the oceans and land surfaces in the region to be exposed this is also because the ice and snow are more reflective than darker surfaces. These surfaces soak up more heat from the sun’s rays, so further heating of the air and further reduction of sea ice and snow emerge as a consequence. Myneni warns that the cycle could get worse.
“The greenhouse effect could be further amplified in the future as soils in the north thaw, releasing potentially significant amounts of carbon dioxide and methane,” Myneni said.
Because of the rising temperatures Arctic and boreal regions could see the equivalent of a 20-degree latitude shift by the end of this century, the team found this out using climate models. The amplified greenhouse effect could have other consequences, like more forest fires, pest infestations and droughts, which cut vegetation growth, researchers say.
And the availability of water and sunlight determines where plants will thrive. “Satellite data identify areas in the boreal zone that are warmer and dryer and other areas that are warmer and wetter,” Ramakrishna Nemani of NASA’s Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, Calif., explained in a statement. “Only the warmer and wetter areas support more growth.”
The researchers furthermore saw additional plant growth in the boreal zone from 1982 to 1992 than from 1992 to 2011. And they thought this could be because of the lack of water in the region during the last two decades of the study.
People are demanding for an end to the load-shedding of electricity and gas. Government should listen or else people will come out on the streets if they do not get basics like energy to light their homes and run their stoves. The issue with oil prices is in fact world wide; the noise is about “energy security”. Other countries in the region are all in chaos ahead to become self sufficient in meeting their own energy needs.
Technology can be our rescue. “Pakistan has two very serious energy problems; energy reliability and energy access”, says Carl Pope, a former executive director of the Sierra Club, an American environmental organization. “For half of Pakistan’s population, renewable energy is the only power they are ever going to get and for the rest renewables can replace the shortfall”, he added.
Carl Pope’s point of view was, renewable energy is the key to our energy misery. This will be possible in the form of small hydro projects, solar water pumps and water geysers to ease the load of electricity and gas, rooftop solar units for homes and large wind farms on Pakistan’s extensive coastal wind corridor. There can be smaller initiatives like the sugar mills producing electricity from biomass to feed the grid, garbage companies converting sorted trash into energy and smaller biogas units across farms in rural areas where dung is readily available. There are a lot of possible solutions; in addition, it can be run of the river turbines or canals to produce electricity locally and extracting methane from our vast low-grade coal supplies in the Thar Desert.
“Every little bit is going to help… The technology for doing all this is readily available”, he points out. All the Government of Pakistan has to do is set the policy right, which in his view, is the fairly easy part. The rest will be done by business. “You don’t have to start from scratch, you can learn from other developing countries like South Africa, Kenya and to some extent India”. If we set out on this path, he says, the “current energy shortage can improve dramatically”. Several companies in Lahore and Karachi are already offering solar technology. What are urgently needed, however, are trusted brand names that can distribute solar products like solar panels, solar geysers, solar pumps, solar streetlights etc. Along with the right distributors, we also need banks to provide the finance to scale all this up.
Wind is the second cheapest form of energy that has huge potentials. But the downside is, aside from a few small pilot projects set up by different NGOs on the coast, we only have one big 50 MW wind energy project that was recently set up by the Fauji Fertiliser Company. But on the good side though, the government claims that the next year will see at least 10 more wind projects which will be the beginning of exploiting the wind potential of the Gharo-Keti Bandar Wind Corridor. The area has 50,000 MW power generation potential which means with the city of Karachi located nearby, distribution costs will not be high.
We are blessed with all the rivers and extensive canal system. This gives us great potential small-scale hydro projects, including run of the river hydro systems. Medium sized dams in the country come with great potential too, they seem to be appropriate sites.
In the rural areas of Pakistan Biogas plants are also a good option, but there could be a problem, according to Carl Pope, is that “they fall apart when you make them too big”. In fact, this has been introduced to some places in the country and they seem to work quite well but only if few households are sharing the load and feedstock.
Another good option is biogas from crushed sugarcane because of many sugar mills in Pakistan. As of today, only around seven sugar mills practice this and selling their surplus power to the national grid. But if all will do the same idea, the potential of producing 2000 MW through the 82 sugar mills in the country.
Pakistan can do better; there are a lot of options for us. If we all support renewable options rather than go for potential expensive scams like “Rental Power Projects”, we could solve our energy problems within five years, says the experts.
The thought could be scary, knowing how much toxins you inhale everyday. Through the help of technology European researchers are gearing up to monitor thousands of people. Smartphones are given away to record the chemicals to which they are exposed every day.
Exposome, the term used by European Commission to study the effects of environmental exposures to human health. It was then hope that the four-year studies will benefit public health in ways that genome research so far has not. Exposone could reveal a warning or warnings of environmental health issues for use.
“There’s been too much emphasis on genetic factors, which contribute relatively little to disease compared with environmental factors,” says Martyn Smith, a toxicologist at the University of California, Berkeley, who is participating in the newly funded Exposomics project. Paolo Vineis, an environmental epi¬demiologist at Imperial College London, leads the €8.7-million project.
Some studies do not always succeed like the Genome-wide association studies, in which scientists search for genetic variants linked to disease. They have failed to fully explain why some people are more susceptible than others to chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes.
The new study will work this way, subjects will carry smartphones equipped with sensors to measure exposures, and their blood will be analyzed to monitor molecular changes. The majority of the participants are already concerned in other long-term health studies. In order to understand the triggers for conditions such as heart disease, asthma and lung cancer, goal is to look for biomarker differences between people walking through areas with low air pollution and those exposed to urban fumes. The idea is to differentiate the difference the toxins will cause the human health basing on their environment.
Vineis’s exposomics approach has already exposed gene-expression signatures that connect people’s leukaemia risk with their exposure to heavy metals and other toxic chemicals, for example.
The second project will focus on children and pregnant women. Since children’s bodies are smaller and their organs are still developing they are more susceptible to environmental influences, this is according to epidemiologist Martine Vrijheid, head of the project, at the Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology in Barcelona, Spain.
The researchers will be focused on disease biomarkers to evaluate the consequence of environmental exposures on growth, obesity, immune development and asthma. Both projects will generate vast amounts of data. Vineis and Vrijheid are developing data-sharing policies to enable other researchers to mine the resource in order to have a more productive outcome so that they may be able to give appropriate warning to the public.
“We see this as a major priority,” says the institute’s David Balshaw. United States became interested in exposomics as well. This year the US National Research Count started to call for greater investments in exposome research. In further adieu the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences plans to make it a priority, although it has yet to invest in any projects as large as the European efforts, he added.
Alarmed that hope was soon be gone on the emphasis on “green” energy, presidents Obama’s re-election has put a new optimism in the step of environmentalists restoring hope not just for more aggressive climate-change policy but to continue on the said project despite the unforeseen failure and serial bankruptcies of Solyndra and other green-energy in unison.
In 1970’s we were at the lowest in terms of energy resources are concerned because hydrocarbon energy such as oil, natural gas and coal were in short supply, expensive and were being imported from unstable regions overseas, we were then left with no choice but endow with renewable energy. The problem with hydrocarbon energy is that it produces eccentric amount of air pollution. As time passes by, technology has found a way to reduce air pollution. It appears that unpredictably, conventional domestic hydrocarbon energy has become abundant again despite unrelenting federal hostility.
The global-warming crusade is still hanging onto its dreams of political relevance. Why is this green energy important? Now that we had proven that green energy is the golden road to prosperity was in fact a lie, but somehow the strategy of forcing higher-cost energy sources on consumers and propping them up with taxpayer subsidies is somewhat been blinded from the laws of economics. Meaning we are all paying twice.
To be sure, if the government will support financially and authorize any form of economic activity, it will “create jobs.” However, as Ms. Furchtgott-Roth, author of Regulating to Disaster, she patiently explains, this kind of reasoning ignores the famous lesson of Frederic Bastiat about what is unseen: “What is seen according to Bastiat, are the jobs directly created by the government, and what is not seen are the workers displaced by the effects of increased taxes, tariffs and government regulation.” The idea could have been more believable if we actually got some of the green jobs. In fact, new employment in green-energy technologies has been little in number and very expensive. Expensive in the sense that sometimes approaching nearly $1 million per job created. So the advocates are actually fooling us, counting as “green jobs” such positions as janitors at solar-power facilities, museum docents, drivers of natural-gas-powered buses, home insulation installers and anyone who works at a bike shop. Even the Green Bay Packers could get counted under some schemes. In short, the green jobbers they are telling us are plainly reclassifying traditional occupations in order to elevate their numbers. And in other words, those are in fact disaster scam jobs.
So what are green jobs really are? No one knows all we know is the jobs they are talking about are frauds. When you shred the true-believing theology and economic illiteracy, what remains is the perfect cover for crony capitalism who would like us to believe in their phony promises. Nothing is making sense, it is as if everyone is making a fool at of his people, disaster scam job policies damage America’s economy.
Fossil fuels—coal, oil, and natural gas—are America’s primary source of energy. America’s annual consumption of fossil fuels grown rapidly. 89 % of these consumption are consumed by boilers, transportation, residential usage, fuels for direct heating of process. The balance is used for feed-stocks, raw materials, and other miscellaneous uses. And most of the dirty fuels such as coal and residual oil go into boilers.
Fuel burned are by far the largest single source of air pollution. This pollution is from sulfur oxide. It is also a significant source of particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. Boiler combustion is sufficiently important to warrant the effort to analyze the complete nature of the problems.
Fuel consumption in boilers is divided into three sectors: utility boilers producing steam for generation of electricity which is actually consuming probably 59%, industrial boilers producing steam or hot water for process heat,generation of electricity or space heat consuming about 24%, and boilers for space heating for commercial and institutional facilities consuming the 17%.
The fuels consumed by boilers in large quantities are natural gas, distillate oil, and coal. Additional energy is derived from the burning of waste such as bark, bagasse, liquid hydrocarbon waste materials, etc. These said fuels contribute only a small percent to energy requirements. But they may however present environmental problems. Although problems have not been address due to the fact that these problems are not full understood. New Sources performance Standards for burning boilers waste are to be developed in the near future.
For fossil fuels, various combination of consuming sectors and type of fuel, have independent significant and insignificant environmental consequences. Boilers have three different types, the atertube, firetube and cast iron therefore to determine the overall pollution due to boilers are hard to determine and complicated. In addition each type varies in type and application and other factors influencing the character and quantity of environmental discharges.
Due to the complexity of analyzing the impacts of boiler operation in the United States, U.S Environmental Protection Agency has given rise to a series of studies. These studies pave the way for a better understanding of the impacts of boilers in our environment and the development of ways to control specific pollutants.
Many of the environmental problems our country faces today result from our fossil fuel dependence. These impacts include global warming, air quality deterioration, oil spills, and acid rain.
Air pollution is one major effect of fuels. Several important pollutants are produced by fossil fuel combustion: carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and hydrocarbons. In addition, total suspended particulates contribute to air pollution, and nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons can combine in the atmosphere to form tropospheric ozone, the major constituent of smog. This is just one of the effects; there is water and land pollution, and thermal pollution.
Global warming is another thing. Among the gases emitted when fossil fuels are burned, one of the most significant is carbon dioxide, a gas that traps heat in the earth’s atmosphere. Over the last 150 years, burning fossil fuels has resulted in more than a 25 percent increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere. Fossil fuels are also implicated in increased levels of atmospheric methane and nitrous oxide, although they are not the major source of these gases.
Alaska, heavily forested, built on rock and surrounded by water, every commodity that enters the country arrives by air and sea. The use of oil is a struggle for both the economy and the environment. Oil must come from elsewhere and be transported but of course by additional fuel, fuel that is subject to oil price stability.
A site that could help giving a solution to the problem is the Southeast Alaska Discovery Center in Ketchikan. The site that provides information to more than a million visitors each year is also the site where a pilot biomass system is now coming to life. A two oil-fired boilers serving the 250,000-sq-ft center were replaced with a highly efficient system fueled by local wood was manufactured by Hurst Boiler & welding Company Inc.
Another good thing about the project is that the hot-water boiler was custom-designed to fit within very limited indoor space.
To address concerns towards issues related to building space, fuel costs, comfort, reliability, simplicity of operation more especially environmental concerns, the biomass boiler system was developed by Hurst representative Gregory W. Smith of Global Energy Solutions Inc. under the direction of E. Dane Ash, project manager for Tyonek-Alcan Pacific LLC.
The excessive use of fossil fuels has been long a problem in any point of the world more especially to Alaska, the boiler system was intended to highlight how biomass can reduce or eliminate the use of fossil fuels. The Hurst S100 Series Fire Tube 27 HP Hydronic Water Heating Boiler features a pre-heater to optimize combustion and an underfeed stoker with dry-ash-removal system. The new boiler requires heating for a minimum of nine months a year; it is located at lower level of the Discovery Center. To protect form extreme moisture the local wood densified into fuel pucks is delivered to an elevated walking-floor storage bin in a vestibule area that is designed especially for the woods. It is important to protect the woods because the biomass-fired boiler can burn any wood product with up to 50-percent moisture content. Not to worry, freezing is not an issue because the walking floor easily breaks up any frozen contents.
Many benefits come along with the use of this biomass boiler, the country saved as much as two-thirds of the fuel costs. There is almost no residual ash when densified pucks are used. But, tree clippings from the Ketchikan walking trails will be ground and fed into the boiler, eliminating the need for transport to a landfill, burning, and other methods of disposal. The system easily can be replicated for heat or heat/power generation up to 20,000 kw.
Systems that were improved by the new technology include municipal solid waste, as well as woody biomass for steam production and steam to power. In June 2011, Smith was a keynote speaker for the fifth annual Native American Economic Development Conference in Anaheim, California, he proudly flaunted the initiatives being implemented in Ketchikan and shared success stories of biomass-fired boiler systems installed on institutional campuses and in manufacturing facilities throughout the United States, particularly in challenging and remote locations.
The economic development of one country is dependent upon the ability of the authorities to set up a highly suitable, competitive and reliable electricity sector. Why is natural gas better than coal boilers?
Only when there is extreme environmental pressure or substantial reduction in loads that conversion from coal to 100% natural gas is possible.
Not until the 20th century until natural gas was used for production of energy, it was dismissed as a useless byproduct of crude oil production until then. But now natural gas accounts for 23 percent of the world’s energy consumption and still growing. The International Energy Agency predicts that the demand for natural gas will grow by approximately 44 percent through 2035.
Natural gas is the cleanest-burning conventional fuel not to mention it has been one of the most economical energy sources. It is an environmentally friendly and efficient source of energy. It produces lower levels of greenhouse gas emissions than heavier hydrocarbon fuels such as coal and oil. Natural gas fuels electric power generators, heats buildings and is used as a raw material in many consumer products, such as those made of traditional plastics. However, natural gas has never been a cheaper fuel than coal.
Coal is one of the longest-used and is considered as the most abundant fossil fuels on Earth. Coal mining has been going on since then 17th century. Coal burning boilers have also been around for a long time, and while they may not always be popular, these machines have some definite advantages in terms of costs and simplicity.
Because it is the most abundant it is the cheapest form of fossil fuel to burn. But coal boilers on the other hand have harmful effects on the environment and human health. Its emissions contain sulfur combines with air to create the poison gas sulfur oxide. When this gas releases into the atmosphere, it causes polluting rain. Extracting coal from mines further damages soil and water resources, adding to the disadvantages of using coal burning boilers.
While coal prices are expected to remain stable natural gas prices are expected to increase as higher cost natural gas reserves need to be developed to meet growing demand and offset losses from depleting gas wells. On the other hand, natural gas based technologies have a capital cost advantage.
Whatever the costs may be, don’t you think it is better to use natural gas rather than the coal boilers? Even though natural gas is more costly than coal boilers it is less harmful to the environment and to human health. It is always better to take into considerations the things that are more important than money. It is not wise to be thrifty over something that in a long run would back fire on you and worst your kids. Long term effects of coal boilers are scarier than the costs in terms of money that it will bring us today. Environmental effects and health issues will sure be more costly in the future.
Jakarta Globe reported. An Indonesian lawmaker announced on Friday that a Supreme Audit Agency (BPK) allegedly implicated six companies in tax fraud totaling Rp 1.7 trillion ($187 million).
Companies were identified as follows, Permata Hijau Sawit, Asian Agri Group, Wilmar Nabati Indonesia, Alfa Kurnia, INJ International and EMA Majokerto Hospital by a Markus Melkias Mekeng.
Markus Melkias Mekeng, House of Representatives Commission XI which overseas financial affairs member said that the companies were identified following a Supreme Audit Agency (BKP) report.
Mekeng, longtime critic of the tax authority, said the commission would urge the House to form a special committee to investigate the case and demand law enforcement officials thoroughly investigate the case, which likely involves officials from the Directorate General of Taxation. He encourages the house to investigate further to prosecute the officials from the Directorate General of Taxation who were allegedly involved in the fraud scheme.
“We all know that over the last three years the tax office has been unable to fulfill its collection target, and one of the main causes is that their officials may be misusing their authority for personal interests,” said the lawmaker, Markus.
It was not Markus’ first time fight against these tax violators, he started standing his grounds against them long ago before these new issues became known, in May 2010, he called the dismissal of two senior tax officials, including director general Mochamad Tjiptardjo, for what he called their “poor performance” in handling cases involving companies Permata Hijau Sawit, Wilmar and Asian Agri.
The BPK opened an investigation and began an audit of tax office methods in June following the request from Mekeng and Commission XI, specifically asking to look at the cases involving these companies, among others.